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Henry Thornton - Contributors: A discussion of economic, social and political issues Blogs
Saturday Sanity Break, 9 July 2011
Date: Saturday, July 09, 2011
Author: Henry Thornton

The HETSA conference held this week at RMIT University was great fun and produced a number of insights.

Some of the papers are available here and others will be coming later.  

I learned from Jeremy Sheamur ('Hayek, Keynes, Robbins and the State') that my proposal for semi-automatic policy responses to boom and bust was Robbinsonian and from John Ballantyne ('Meade's Reconstruction of Keynes') that I was also endorsing James Meade's policy approach.

One reason to study the history of economic theory is to avoid mistakes of the past; another is to discover that YOU ARE NOT ALONE.

Several international superstars graced the event  - Maria Christina Marcuzzo from the world of HET, David Hart of the Liberty Foundation, who is reviving Frédéric Bastiat (see Image of the week below), William Dixon from London Metropolitan University ('Ricardo to Keynes: A History of Economic Thought as a Laboratory for Understanding the Interaction between Economics and Economy'), Gianfranco Tusset ('Social Heterogeneity in Vilfredo Pareto') and Atsush Komine who asked why Keynes promoted the cause of women at Cambridge in the 1920s.  Australia's own elder statesman of HET, Peter Groenewegan from Sydney University, was also present and spoke of the revival of Marxism.

There was a powerful contingent from WA, led by Professors Michael McLure and Gregory Moore, and including several students courtesy the Mannkel foundation

Organisers Alex Millmow Bruce Littleboy and Steven Kates were active, hosting social events and generally herding cats. Millmow spoke about the Australianisation of Paul Samuelson’s Economics Principles Textbook while Littleboy evaluated the work of GLS Shackle.

Steven Kates ('The Role of HET in the Development of Economic Theory') generated great excitement when a single copy of HIS NEW BOOK arrived in time for the conference dinner.

Sadly it was given to the guest speaker, one whose name, like that of Lord Voldemort, must not be spoken.  This lucky recipient (Kates asserted) is 'the only man in Australia who does not need to read it'.

There is a free copy of Great Crises of Economics for any reader not at the conference who correctly guesses who the guest speaker was.

Australian economic policy

Meanwhile, back in what passes for the real world, bits and pieces of the great big new carbon tax got leaked, including the astonishing facts that petrol is to be excluded along a tax on with 500 of the largest 1000 polluters and that battlers are to be 'overcompensated'.

Now instead of being a great big new tax it is a negative-net-revenue welfare churn with only the bureaucrats administering it receiving net benefits (= their salaries and nice warm offices in which to be bureaucrats).

Michael Stutchbury today reports on Tony Abbott's highly effective attack on the 'carbon tax' at the big conference over a week ago.

'TONY Abbott's attack on Labor's carbon tax at last week's Growth Challenge conference reinforced his reputation as a conservative populist.

'This was mostly generated by my question about his response to the great majority of economists who thought a carbon price was the most efficient way to cut emissions.

"They should think again because when you get beyond the lure of the phrase 'market-based mechanisms' the reality is very different," Abbott told the economist-heavy crowd. "It may well be, as you say, Michael, that most Australian economists think that a carbon tax or an emissions trading scheme is the way to go. Maybe that's a commentary on the quality of our economists rather than the merits of the argument."

'Abbott v the economists became the news grab. Not only did he not believe the majority of scientists, now he was also dissing the "leading economists in Australia", crowed Climate Change Minister Greg Combet'.

Image of the week

 Courtesy Liberty Foundation

This is how to treat great economists.

Monetary confusion
Date: Wednesday, March 04, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

'At today’s meeting the Board judged that, having eased monetary policy at the previous meeting, it was appropriate to hold interest rates steady for the time being.

'Further easing of policy may be appropriate over the period ahead, in order to foster sustainable growth in demand and inflation consistent with the target.

'The Board will further assess the case for such action at forthcoming meetings'.  Read on here.

The RBA acknowleged that growth is 'continuing at a below-trend pace, with domestic demand growth overall quite weak'.  There will be spare capacity and with wages subdued goods and services inflation should 'remain consistent with the target over the next one to two years, even with a lower exchange rate'.

The problem, of course, is that asset inflation, especially house price inflation in Sydney and Melbourne, is glowing in the dark, and global shares are also setting new records.  The correction of local share prices when the RBA announced its 'no cut' decision yesterday shows that monetary policy effects asset prices.  The fact that the currency jumped before the announcement is, or should be, of great concern to the RBA as it was very likely due to a leak, even worse than suggestions last month of selective briefings.

If it is only Sydney and Melbourne house prices that are of concern, APRA could impose some sort of limit on bank lending for housing in those two cities, a Macro Prudential policy response.  But it is surely now recognised that monetary policy cannot serve two or three masters.  This means it cannot be used simultaneously control the overall economy to keep goods and services inflation in the target zone AND help reduce the exchange rate AND control asset inflation.

Please refer to Henry's January 2013 warning about this point.

The proposed new tax on overseas buyers of new houses, with forced sales of second hand properties purchased illegally by overseas buyers, is another (dare I say) crude and narrowly-based Macroprudential policy. It is a partial and therefore ineffective version of Henry's plan for a tax on all forms of capital inflow. This was apparently 'too hard' for important geniuses/madmen in authority to have considered, or even noticed. The latest Hissink file may provide perspective.

Words fail me. Perhaps this image may do more than words to capture attention.

Saturday Sanity Break, 28 Febuary 2015
Date: Saturday, February 28, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

'Thousands more mining jobs to be cut as export earnings plunge' is one important headline this week.

The other recent bit of economic news is that non-mining investment is hardly rising and has no chance of replaving plunging mining investment, while infrastructure seems to be lost in the chaos of political confusion and budget blow-outs.

If you want to feel even worse, take a gander at Laura Tingle's Friday account of all the good intentions gone south.

'Remember the days when we all rambled on about the whacky Senate? Well that now seems like a millennium ago.

'Instead, we are now all absorbed by a whacky government that – if you have but a moment to pause and think about almost anything it has done in the past couple of weeks – seems capable of wreaking much more serious havoc on the rest of us than a bunch of accidentally elected senators dazzled by experiencing occasional brushes with power.

'It's not so much that the government – and the Prime Minister – seem to have lost their respective schtick, it's that their behaviour leaves us wondering what their schtick was in the first place'. Read on and sob, readers who believe a strong economy is vital for just about everything a government might wish to do.

The bi-annual Australian airshow proved to be a hotbed of political gossip. The conclusion was that Tony Abbott will be challenged and defeated next Thursday and that there will be big changes to portfolios made by Malcolm Turnbull, including Scott Morrison as the new Treasurer and more than a hint that David Johnson will be back at Defence.

Today's press, especially the Oz, seems to have decided it has given the PM enough stick for the time being.  Its editorial begins as follows:

'THE bed wetters, serial miscreants and executive panic merchants of the Liberal party need to reflect on recent history and hold their nerve amid the current political tumult. Public disappointment in Tony Abbott’s performance is manifest yet the government’s standing in the polls is by no means disastrous this far out from an election. What’s more, the Coalition has a reasonable chance of re-election because of Labor’s indolence and four areas of strategic advantage where the government can create a sharp contrast with the ALP: firm opposition to a carbon tax; proven strength on border protection; clear determination in combating jihadist terrorism; and demonstrable — if clumsy — commitment to repair the budget. Bill Shorten wants a price on carbon, plays to “compassionate” critics on border protection, has exonerated erstwhile Taliban loyalist David Hicks as “foolish” and refuses to admit the budget needs urgent repair'.

The gossip-mongers at the Airshow should have a bex and a good night's sleep. Today the B52 flies in from some Pacific Island, does a half-hour turn and flies home again, which will provide plenty of excitement for Australia's retired warriors. Meanwhile, Australia plays New Zealand in what is a danger game.  A loss to our cousins from over the ditch, now that would be a serious crisis.

New Treasury Secretary, John Fraser, has given tongue at a meeting organised by CEDA. Mr Fraser's conclusion makes perfect sense, as regular readers will recognise.

'If we set ourselves on a path of sensible fiscal repair and lay out credible plans for structural reform that address our long-term growth challenges, then the consumer, business and investor sentiment that is critical to lifting economic activity in the near-term will materialise'.

Read on here.  


Fiona goes to the movies and waves off a special Vulcan.


Cricket minnows Afghanistan have beaten Scotland in a hair raising performance, and are said to be after Australia's scalp next.  Australia, meanwhile, are underprepared for their joust with New Zealand. I cringed when I read hairy-chested comments in the press from Australians saying we'd out-bowl them and out-bat them. An American president once said 'Walk softly and carry a large stick'. Right on the money in my view.

The footy makes a sputtering start soon but the real deal starts on Thursday April 2 when Caaaaarlton! meets Richmond at the 'G'.  Henry will be there with a fervant hope that Mighty Mick has finally got it right.  If 2015 is another fizzer, bring back Brett Rattan will be my cry, and Mick can go to Essendon to manage its resurrection.

More from the Essendon bunker here.

Image of the week

Courtesy The Oz

Big economic questions
Date: Thursday, February 26, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

Janet Yellen is ever so slowly preparing the way for a (gasp!) rate increase in the USA. 'If economic conditions continue to improve ... the committee will at some point begin considerimng an increase in the target range for the federal funds rate ...'. The care with which Dr Yellen is dancing around this matter is a wonder to behold.  Is the US economy so delicately poised that extreme care needs be taken to minimise the chances of great damage being wrought by, say, a 25 basis point increase in the 'target range'?  As I understand it, the current target range is 0 to 0.25.  As a modest contribution, Henry asks whether the range be raised to 0.25 to 0.50 but the new rate be put at the bottom of that range.

And in distant Australia, Treasurer Joe Hockey has warned us to hang on tight when the Intergenerational Report hits our desks for fear of falling off our chairs. We'll all be rooned, comrades, unless we decide to work harder and smarter and for longer.  Imagine the dilemmas in Japan and Italy, where more people are dying than being born.  No wonder asylum seekers are flooding to Italy in leaky boats, and someone should show them Japan as an idyllic destination with rapidly emptying villages set among beautiful scenery.

Closer to home, warm congratulations are due to Scott Morrisan and Patrick McClure for a brave reform agenda for welfare policies, annual cost $150 billion and rapidly growing. As Mr Morrison said, these reforms will not proceed unless Australians agree.  Simpler, fairer and more efficient, and the thrust is getting welfare recipients back to work, and who can sensibly disagree?  And the recent ABC report about rorting by the (private sector) employment agencies chilled the blood, and suggests there is a lot of fixing to be done.

Courtesy SMH

And in late breaking news, new Treasury head John Fraser has admitted to being a fan of Ronald Reagan's tax cuts, while not being a fan of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF's) 'claims in the past year that tough budget cuts had done more damage than good'. This has signalled that his advice to the Treasurer is likely to be less 'pro-Keynesian' than immediate predecessors Martin Parkinsin and Ken Henry. Perhaps Mr Fraser has more faith in the inherent strength of the Australian economy than his predecessors. He also asserted, reports Jacob Greber in the fin, 'I do not resile from the point that I don't think spending our way out of lower economic activity is the way to go'. Perhaps sensing that his listeners might be failing to understand this gnomic point, he later said "Spending your way out of these things just doesn't work".

David Uren asked Mr Fraser about the falling currency in a recent interview for the Oz. A lower exchange rate gave Australia some breathing space, the Treasury head explained, but not enough to rekindle growth. “We can’t pin our hope on a lower exchange rate to do all the magic. The lower exchange rate was a massive plus for us in the 1980s only because we used it to reinforce good fiscal policies and tackle structural problems.” (Advised by the RBA, not the Treasury, incidentally.)

Mr Fraser also confessed to thinking there are better things to spend money on than paying interest on the debt, and that his dislike of debt would leave the country "liable to the vicissitudes of the market" and that when interest rates go up, Australia would be "exposed".  We like your work, Mr Fraser, but where do you stand on the desirable pace of deficit and debt reduction?  If budgets have little predictable short-term effects, why not get the budget fixed in a hurry to minimise later "exposure" in the form of high debt in a world of rising interest rates?  And what about the likely effect of economic reform to boost growth, should rapid budget fixing slow growth?  Or are you skeptical about any attempt to improve the economy? My views are here.

Naturally Henry does not expect the Secretary of Treasury to respond to Henry's assertions, or to answer his questions, but surely the Senate committee could do more to draw him out? Committee chair, Senator Slamming Sam Dastyari, inspired by the Secretary's presentation, spoke of President Reagan's 'Voodoo economics'.  Well Senator, look at its effect on the US economy, and ask some real questions next time you meet John Fraser.

Comment by Des Moore influential former senior Treasury official and regular commentator on important policy issues for Australia.

Despite its length, because  the address by new Treasury Secretary, John Fraser, is potentially so important I am including below the full text of it.  It is important in terms of both substance and tone, the latter because critics of economic rationalism and small government will find it harder to find substantive responses. Indeed, the image of the address is also helped by Fraser’s indication of support for government assistance to the “worst off”, his criticism of excess spending financed from the commodities boom and starting under Howard, and his emphasis on the need for a well-functioning tax system that is “fair”.

If as reported Abbott is searching for a “policy reset”, he has the basics in Fraser’s speech.

Except for The Australian (which appears sympathetic), so far the media has been largely in a straight reporting mode (see attached). As at 1.00 pm the ABC’s digital  “Just In” has not even mentioned the address. No doubt the doubters will be searching for items they can use to try to undermine but the one that appeared so far –that Fraser is a Reaganite – won’t get very far.

It will be of interest to see whether comments are sought from leading politicians, including both Abbott and Shorten, and academics.

Mr Fraser's speech is available here.

The looming deflationary `crisis`
Date: Tuesday, February 24, 2015
Author: PD Jonson

In 1971 President Nixon cut the final link between the dollar and gold. Inflation quickly became a global problem, fuelled by America's attempt simultaneously to win the war on communism in Vietnam and the war on poverty at home. Inflation spread from America to the rest of the developed world, greatly reinforced by successive leaps in the prices of oil. Unemployment rose sharply with inflation, and the ugly word 'stagflation' was coined.

For much of the period since the 1970s central banks as well as businesses and households have feared inflation more than unemployment, which more or less looked after itself with the usual 'cyclical' fluctuations. Most central banks have adopted targets for goods and services inflation, while perhaps taking their eyes of other targets, especially asset inflation.

With the advent of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2007, attention shifted to the real economy as rates of unemployment rocketed. Monetary policy became super-easy, interest rates near zero, reinforced by so-called 'Quanititative Easing' (QE).

The USA and the UK were the earliest to adopt super-easy monetary policy, reinforced by widespread bailouts of financial institutions in trouble. Now these countries are showing signs of recovery in their 'real' economies, the clearest indicator of which is falling unemployment. Despite super-easy monetary policy, goods and services inflation is languishing to the point that 'deflation' is the new concern.  The prices of oil, coal, natural gas, iron ore and other metals are plummeting (very bad for resource exporters like Australia and Canada) and even consumer inflation is falling, in some cases almost to zero.

But asset prices have been rocketing, and we all know that this cannot go on for ever.  Every boom in asset values is followed by a bust.  If the next bust is big enough, the nascent recovery of developed economies is likely to be snuffed out.

The latest Economist has both a leader and a detailed article on the  perils of deflation in goods and services prices. Both make gripping if scary reading, with a focus on ways in which economic policy needs reconsideration when goods and services inflation is near to zero or even negative.

'FOR central banks in the rich world, two is a magic number. If prices rise at 2% a year, most shoppers can more or less ignore their slow ascent. And a touch of inflation is hugely helpful: it gives bosses a way to nudge unproductive workers—a pay freeze actually means a 2% cut—and an incentive to invest their earnings. Most importantly it keeps economies away from deflation and the depressing choices—hoarding cash, delaying purchases—that falling prices can bring. Yet despite the professed adherence to the 2% mantra, a period of falling prices is on the cards'.

I would like to propose an analytic framework that helps to explain the facts of recent experience and which is grounded in serious empirical research. There are three core concepts that are needed to explain recent oddities of macroeconomic experience - monetary disequilibrium, increased leverage and risk-taking by financial institutions, and the state of confidence, 'Animal Spirits' in the colorful phrase used by some of the world's best economists.

'Monetary disequilibrium' is a more sophisticated version of simple monetarism, where the stance of monetary policy is defined by monetary growth.  It also encompasses the ideas of John Taylor who represents monetary policy with a rule that relates cash interest rates to the state of the economy, in the simplest cases the rate of inflation and the rate of unemployment. Consumers and businesses, it is assumed, use 'Money' as a buffer stock, and adjust decisions in part on whether they have excess or deficient money in their buffer stocks.

For the period until the onset of the 1970s, research has shown that 'monetary disequilibrium' largely influenced the state of demand. Clearly, severe recession/depression produced low 'Animal Spirits' at times during this long period, and during the nineteenth century major gold discoveries in the 1850s and 1890s boosted money supply, and presumably also raised the spirits of households, businessmen and government officials. Both goods and services inflation and asset inflation mostly followed the ups and downs of monetary policy, even when simply represented by money growth.

In the 1970s and 1980s, with the final link to gold severed, 'monetary disequilibrium' also came to influence inflationary expectations, as therefore goods and services inflation. The more or less simultaneous impact of monetary growth on goods and services inflation and asset inflation remained the rule, although there were 'aberrant episodes' identified here that demand a more complete explanation.

The nexus between monetary growth (and therefore 'monetary disequilibrium') was broken in the 1920s USA.  Then monetary growth and goods and services inflation were moderate, but asset price inflation was allowed to boom  by credit advanced by the New York banks to speculators.  This was also a time of strongly positive Animal Spirits, at least in the USA. In the UK, in contrast, the mid-1920s return to the gold standard at prewar parity created pessimism rather than optimism..

Another time of very strong Animal Spirits was 1950s USA when, once again monetary growth (and therefore 'monetary disequilibrium') was controlled but asset price inflation was very strong. A similar period was 1990s USA, when strong Animal Spirits and strong growth and innovation was further boosted by strong credit growth as banks increased leverage in the wake of President Clinton's financial deregulation.

The 15 years of the 2000s and 2010s so far seem to me to contain several strands.  There was strong credit growth and strong Animal Spirits until the onset of the GFC. Then near zero interest rates and 'Quantitative easing' helped avoid a catastrophic decline of economic activity and cushioned Animal Spirits.

Throughout this period the influence of the 'Greenspan put' and the 'Bernanke put' meant asset demand recovered quickly after each asset crash, and rose strongly in the period as a whole, and this will surely have influenced Animal Spirits of investors.  Depressed demand for goods and services closed or slowed the normal recovery channels from recessions. The long period of depressed goods and services demand, combined with continued strong supply of goods and services, is the reason for the global goods and services price deflation.

I have still to put all of this reasoning into a coherent estimable model, but that is the next step. My intuition is that 'deflation' will be seem as a normal  response to a deep recession where the normal response to monetary disequilibrium is diverted to the asset markets instead of into depressed goods and services markets.

Readers seeking references for the assertions in this blog should contact Henry here.

The RBA's Philip Lowe has grappled with some of the issues covered here.  Here is a link to his speech.   In my opinion, Mr Lowe is too heavily focussed on interest rates as the primary transmission mechanism for monetary policy. A direct monetary effect, in my view formulated as 'monetary disequilibrium', would help explain the conundrum he is exploring in this speech.

Saturday Sanity Break, 21 February 2015
Date: Saturday, February 21, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

The event of the year for Henry is the advent of a new book by Geoffrey Blainey. Its arrival is celebrated in the weekend's Australian Magazine where Geoffrey explains ways in which he sees parts of Australian history with fresh eyes. This article covers largely the history of the first Australians and a theme is that 'Aborigines experienced what is surely the most significant event in our history. Nothing since 1788 can compare in magnitude to the great rising of the seas which – in full sight of scores of generations of coastal Aborigines – flooded coastal plains and valleys. It severed Australia from New Guinea in the north and Tasmania in the south'.

Professor Blainey adds that: 'In comparison, the rise in sea levels and the global warming currently predicted for the next 100 years seem like a sideshow. It is a triumph of the human spirit that Aborigines as a people survived an event which must slowly have drowned all or part of the homeland of perhaps one in every three tribes or “nations”.'

The concluding paragraphs comment on the so-called 'history wars' and follow with a nice remembered account: 'Controversy, not war, will continue for a long time to come. It is in the nature of history and of most intellectual activities, and the more so in a nation where the main strands of history – Aboriginal and European – are utterly different.

'In 1948 I was in the public gallery of the old parliament house in Canberra. There I looked down with a sense of wonder at the oldest member, the silver-haired Billy Hughes, who had been a member of the first federal parliament in 1901. I did not then know that in parliament he had often sat near William Groom, a senior Queensland politician who, as a 13-year-old back in the 1840s, had been transported as a convict to Australia.

'It shows the brevity of [conventional, post 1788] “Australian history’” that through good fortune I was able to see a living politician whose parliamentary colleague belonged to the convict era – the time when the first settlement at Sydney began. In contrast, the indigenous history of this country is unimaginably long'.

Read on here.

Professor Geoffrey Blainey’s The Story of Australia’s People: Volume I (Viking, $49.99) will be available in the best bookshops on Wednesday.

Political economy

Australia's latest blood sport, Abbott bashing, continues unabated, with even the senior journos throwing some punches, including stories that I find literally incredible, such as the allegation that Chief-of-staff Peta Credlin sometimes chaired the Expenditure Review Committee. 

But there is so much acrid smoke that one must assume that there are plenty of smoldering ashes. Even friends of Tony Abbott say they fear he will not survive for long.

In matters economic, Henry must say, with a heavy heart, that the budget is buggered, and that only drastic action will stave off recession.  Conventional budget reform would involve cutting expenditure or raising taxes, or some mix of the two. Such action is necessary to fix the budget and stop the rise of debt. This will almost certainly slow or delay recovery of the economy unless ...

... Budget reform is accompanied by bold action to encourage growth.

Nick Greiner in today's AFR says there is a need for a "grand compromise" to end the budget stand-off or risk the country grinding slowly toward a "train wreck".

Hear, hear to that, but simply cutting spending and raising taxes - the traditional Treasury way - will be deflationary unless positive energy is injected via serious economic reform.

Here is Henry's agenda for reform.


Fiona Prior falls under the spell of Graeme Murphy's Swan Lake


Wild storms have wreaked havoc in the deep north, and we sincerely hope people are safe and that the insurance companies do not play too hard in assessing the claims that are sure to be many. Rebuliding will add to economic activity and may provide a boost that helps the economy.  It is not a boost that John Maynard Keynes would salute, even though in a satirical moment he proposed digging holes and filling them in again.

At the time of writing, Australia's game with Bangladesh is likely to be truncated or called off.  With the minimun 20 overs each, anything could happen, and the Bangladashies (sic?) are sure to have noted how Brandan McCallum or David Warner make runs. Meanwhile, England seem disinterested, being flogged by New Zealand who are emerging as a real chance to win the tournement.

The footy season is somewhat delayed by the cricket but Essendon continues to hog the limelight. They have been granted permission to patch together a team, sadly not including men from the Ascot Vale firsts, and should get flogged until their regular players are allowed back.

What sad news it was that code-hopper Karmicheal Hunt has been charged with drug using and drug peddling. At least it was not in Indonesia, so he will not face a firing squad, but his new Rugby career seems likely to be over.

Recession or Reform
Date: Thursday, February 19, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

Gor blimey, comrades, Messrs Abbott and Hockey are singing from the same hymn sheet and the subject is hell and damnation.

Tony Abbott pointed out, entirely reasonably I hasten to add, that Australia's massive budget deficits and rising debt was stealing from our children, and their children.

Today Joe Hockey has weighed in with some powerful rhetoric of his own, as reported by Adam Creighton.

* 'Speaking to business owners of the Sydney Business Chamber, Joe Hockey said the forthcoming Intergenerational Report – a five-yearly document looking at long term fiscal pressures, due for release soon – would make Australians “fall off their chairs”.

* 'But he said the Intergenerational Report would “stimulate a conversation” about whether the rules around superannuation were sustainable for the long term.

* 'Mr Hockey said the IGR would not be like past reports but “a very genuine attempt by the Treasury, in an unprecedented way, to launch a conversation about Australia’s future”.'

RBA Chief Glenn Stevens recently told the pollies that the debt and deficit situation could get far worse 'in a heartbeat'.

And the ratings agency S&P today put the cherry on the top by warning that Australia's AAA credit rating could be put at risk, meaning we'd have to pay more in interest on that debt.

This is Banana Republic Redux. The original Banana Republic was postponed by tough fiscal and wage policies by the Hawke-Keating government, then the recession it (and all of us 'punters') had to have, further postponed by the Howard-Costello government's reforms and seemingly banished by the mother of resource booms.

But motherly booms always end in busts, and the current bust has revealed the dodgy underpinnings of Australia's so-called 'miracle economy'.

Comrades, we know what is needed.  Without imagination and courage, austerity measures which all Australians except the real battlers embrace willingly will be needed. But the measures of austerity must be fair, and be seen to be fair.

'Here is the thing' as a young man might put it.  Without imagination, there are two roads to redemption.  Cut spending and hold it down until the budget disaster and lack of competitiveness is fixed.  Or raise taxes.  Or some mix of the two.

If handled badly, and perhaps even if fiscal reform is handled well, we shall experience the recession we did not need to have.  It is 18 months since this warning was offered, and perhaps too late to avoid recession. 

The best chance of avoiding recession involves a burst of economic reform to create growth that would help the budget and create jobs. When ratios to GDP are out of whack, a government can cut the denominator or raise the numerator.

Here are eight big ideas to raise the numerator, with the full analysis available here.

* Immediate action needs to be taken to reverse cabotage rules introduced since 2009, and phase out as rapidly as possible the entire cabotage system and its unique work practices regime. This would allow costal shipments of products and raw materials to be transported at internationally competitive rates.

* High efficiency super-critical coal fired power generation must become again the major base for a return to Australia’s power and energy cost advantage, even if we eventually decide Australia is ready for nuclear alternatives.

* Company tax reform needs to provide for the write-off of new manufacturing equipment to match overseas competitors.

* Government should urgently remove regulatory impediments to management and labour flexibility, to allow work practices and conditions of employment to be tailored to the specific needs of each individual business.

* Policies need to be put in place to raise the overall spend (Government and corporate) on R&D as a percentage of GDP, to global best practice levels. The program would need to ensure that relevant business and administrative skills and experience are available to use any Government support effectively. The government's new 'Growth Centres are relevant here, as is the long-standing CRC Program.

*  A task force needs to be constituted to review best practice arrangements in countries which lead the table of performance with innovation and commercialisation. The outcome would be a basis to review and implement policies which would be relevant for Australia, which currently is the lowest county in the OECD rankings in this vital area.

* A persistently overvalued exchange rate is a form of asset pricing imbalance that involves instability of industry structure and which requires fresh thinking by the Reserve Bank of Australia.

* Priority be given to mergers which favour the formation of a strong group which can compete in international markets rather than having weak fragmented entities. The ACCC brief needs appropriate revision.

It is very late if recession is to be avoided.  But better late than never, as Grandma Thornton used say.  Radical economic reform requires both courage and imagination.

We shall soon find out if our leaders have what it takes.

The coming global property bubble
Date: Wednesday, February 18, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

'KEEP interest rates low for long enough and the property market will eventually boom' asserts Buttonwood of the Economist. 'That has been a good rule of thumb for investors throughout history. It is even proving true in Europe, despite the continent’s sluggish economy'.

There you have it, dear readers, a similar view to Henry's, as presented last week.  Henry's graphic hints of a focus on housing, reflecting the traditional Aussie bias.  But the basic logic is similar to Buttonwood's far more sophisticated offering.

The venerable mag summarises, and offers an entirely rational explanation. 'Europe’s rebound outpaced the 9% rise in global property transactions, although not a 15% rise in American deals. Office buildings and hotels were the most active sectors worldwide.

'It is hardly surprising that investors are enthusiastic for bricks and mortar. In both the cash and government-bond markets, yields are zero or even negative. By comparison, yields of 5% on American property or even 4% on office blocks in central London look attractive'.

Yields on property are falling, but long-term returns from property look very respectable. 'In the ten years to end-September, American commercial property delivered a total annualised return of 7.9%, according to IPD, a property-information group; returns in both Canada and New Zealand were in the double digits over the same period (see chart). That compares with the 8.1% annual return (including dividends) achieved by American equities over the same period and with the 6.8% annual return achieved on long-term Treasury bonds'.

Is the market due for another downturn? 'Not necessarily. Property is vulnerable to three things: a rise in interest rates, a downturn in the economy that hits demand, and a burst of speculative building that leads to oversupply.

* 'On the first point, central banks are still cutting rates in much of the world. There is the possibility of rate rises in America and Britain over the next year, but with inflation very low, central banks are likely to be cautious.

* Second, 'The world economy is not exactly racing, but forecasts (for what they are worth) predict GDP growth of more than 1% in the euro area and Japan and more than 3% in America. In any case, prime properties, which investors are most enthusiastic about, managed to weather the 2008-09 recession and so should be resilient to another downturn.

* 'In terms of supply, it is easy to be misled by the view from The Economist's offices of the flocks of cranes perched over London. This is the exception. Globally there is yet to be the kind of development spree that usually marks the peak of the property cycle. Deals involving development land fell by 29% globally last year, including a 3% decline in Europe'. Trevor Swan, one of Australia's few globally significent economists, once advised the young Henry that the may cranes of Sydney had stopped moving. 'That's all you need to observe to see the recession has started' the old boy (as he then was) announced.

The cranes of London are still moving, and elseware they are like the famous parrot - not dead but resting. 'So it is possible that commercial property’s streak could last a good deal longer. Lots of investors need income and the obvious alternative to property—corporate bonds—has had a very good run. Investors have even been willing to accept a negative yield on bonds issued by Nestlé, a Swiss foods group, in effect paying for the privilege of lending it money.

'Until the 1970s property was the asset of choice for long-term investors such as university endowments and pension funds. It has been replaced in recent decades by government bonds, which are much more liquid. If yields on bonds stay at Japan-like levels for a while, however, the allure of property will only increase. And if inflation returns, property will be a better hedge than conventional government bonds'.

And in conclusion: 'Eventually, such logic will inflate a bubble, of course. Residential property in London (fuelled by a combination of low rates and international capital) has already reached that point. But the surge of interest in second-tier and more speculative commercial-property projects that marks the top of the cycle is only just beginning, at least in Europe. The skyscrapers will tell you when to worry'.

Sunday Sanity Break, 15 February 2015
Date: Sunday, February 15, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

The new year is already looking like the old year.  Henry's corporate commitments are still limbering up and his major research project is on hold and so there has been time to listen to or even watch the antics in the hig house on capitol hill. We have been slowed up by a serious carpel tunnel problem that fortunately was fixed in time to avoid real problems.  While in recovery mode - NO TYPING - there has been almost enforced Skye News watching. Parliament seems more than ever like a public school where the boys have taken over and the headmistress is trying unsucessfully to rule the roost from her podium in the Assembly Hall. The rules remain absolutely no generosity of spirit, no sense of common purpose and no common courtesy is to be shown by either side.

As well as watching (and seething with frustration) I have at least found time to produce a few blogs. As is my wont these include comment on monetary policy ahead of the RBA board meeting and afterwards. My strong advice ahead of the meeting was that the economy needed the budget to be fixed as well as policies to make Australia more efficient and competitive. There was little justification for further cuts to monetary policy, unless the economy was in deeper trouble than senior members of the government, or for that matter the RBA, had indicated.  And there was a real chance of renewing, or strengthening, the housing boom, although the RBA may be relying on APRA to impose new-fangled 'macroprudential policy' to sort that problem.

The view that there was little case for further rate cuts was of course trumped by the RBA Chief with a rate cut.  Many will say that the RBA is looking good in the light of the large jump in the official (ABS) unemployment rate data released today. The RBA forecasts were shaded, not slashed, however, so it is reasonable to ask why the RBA has changed tack. (This is discussed in my latest blog, linked here.  This blog also touches on the touchy subject of pre-meeting 'briefing' by the RBA, which it has been asserted was especially obvious before this latest meeting of the board.

The weekend AFR reports that Glenn Stevens has said to a meeting of parlimentarians that the budget problem could get much worse 'in a heartbeat'.  If they were not terrified, they should be.

Gov'nor Glenn also said there is a limit to what monetary policy can do. This was because interest rates are already low, but a far bigger issue is that other policies, concerning regulation, fiscal policy and policies of state and local government have far more impact on the economy than a small cut (or cuts) in rates of interest.  I am sure that Glenn Stevens agrees with this, but no doubt thinks the RBA has to be seen to be doing its bit. But rate cuts will be positively unhelpful if they stimulate asset inflation.  Initial impacts suggest this is a real risk.

Art lovers may care to comment on my editor's latest post-modern painting, designed to illustrate that monetary ease in current circumstances goes more reliably into asset prices than economic stimulus.

All of Henry's friends bemoan the state of Australian politics and ask what can be done. In 'Political economy, Aussie style' I provide an answer. A reader asked if I was advocating policy made by technocrats rather than politicians. I remarked that the independant central bank with a clear mandate had served Australia well.

While giving Treasury independance plus a mandate to run a sensible fiscal policy is probably a bridge too far, what about requiring Treasury to provide us all with its policy advice, as the RBA does in its field.

This is worth debate and, when it bobs up in a newspaper, please recall you heard it first here.

All the best for the year ahead. Remember this is a time to tread carefully with seatbelt engaged.


Fiona Prior is back, reviewing Cirque de Soleil. She says, for those of Henry’s [mostly elderly] readers 'whose idea of a circus is a ringmaster, elephants, and men with whips facing off giant cats – Cirque de Soleil is a completely different experience altogether (except, maybe, for a shared penchant for sparkly leotards)'.

You must not miss this, elderly readers.  It will help you to look cool to your grandchildren.

Henry judges that this summer's movies are the best for years. The latest stunner is Selma, the story of the freedon marches in Alabama several short decades ago.

Hard to accept that back then American Negroes, as African Americans were called, were blocked from voting, a century after the Civil War. Lovely work by all concerned, and here is a trailer. Watch the ad, Shen Yen, 5000 years of Chinese history in one gorgous sitting.


Australia beat England by 111 runs in the second match of the World Cup of Cricket.  This was despite batting failures by Warner, Watson and Smith and with Mitch

Marsh getting five for while Johnson and Starc dealt gently with the pestiferous poms (PPs)  Smith chimed in with the best catch I have seen, and Starc pulled of a close second miracle catch. George Bailey scored 55 and captained the team well. Sadly, Bailey may be required to stand down in favour of Michael Clark, which seems like a real pity.

As predicted here last weekend, it seems that Essendon will be 'topped up' with a team mainly from Ascot Vale and other suburban teams.  Hope a suburban coach is in charge of the team, not Sir James Hird - did you miss Tony's latest cap'ns choice? Imagine the furore if Essendon Vale beat an AFL heavyweight, like Collingwood.

With cricket on for 6 weeks, by which time the footy will be underway, there will not be much time for moping, or trying to help Tony save his job.  Some honest toil, that's what we both need, like choppimg trees or weeding vegetable patches.

Image of the week

Courtesy The Oz

Rate cut - Asset inflation or economic boost?
Date: Tuesday, February 10, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

The RBA's latest excellent summary of the world and local economies, and the implications for monetary policy, was made available on Friday.  One could not assume that the timing was designed to distract us all from the political hi-jinks, but if it was it failed.  But now we are back to business as normal it is only fair to devote serious attention to the excellent work of the men and women of  the RBA's economic department.

Key questions remain. Resuming the policy easing may provide some boosts to non-mining activity and some assistance to a lower exchange rate.  But what if it fuels further housing inflation, as initial responses suggests is likely?  Will APRA's untested 'macroprudential policy' be able to prevent a housing boom turning into a bubble?

First we summarise the latest Monetary Statement. I shall use a staccato presentation of main facts.  In short:

* Growth slowed a bit in Asia - China, Japan, East Asia.

* Growth increased in USA.

* Price of oil fell further.

* Price of other commodities fell, but a bit slower rate.

* Net effect: 'Australia’s MTP growth is expected to continue at around its pace of recent years in 2015 as a number of effects offset each other'. [Sadly, 'MTP' is not something I have encountered before, which confession will strengthen the general view in Henry's household that the old boy is past it.]

* The oil price falls are putting downward pressure on global prices of goods and services. The dread word 'deflation' is being discussed in hushed tones in central banking land, especially in the ECB.

* Central banks have eased - 'QE' in Europe, rate cuts elsewhere, financial markets have pushed back expectations of rate hikes in the USA. 'Sovereign bond yields in the major markets have fallen significantly, particularly at longer maturities, although the size of the decline in yields is difficult to explain' [Ouch, if the RBA is puzzled, Henry is absolutely baffled.]

* Here is a zinger: 'The increasingly divergent paths of monetary policy among the major advanced economies have led to some sizeable movements in exchange rates'. The Swiss Franc moved dramatically after the Swiss abandoned policy of holding their currency down, and US dollar rising against most others, as next move in US rates is expected to be up.  The  so-called 'currency wars' are hotting up.

* And another: Australian financial conditions remain 'very accommodative'. The Aussie dollar has fallen relative to the US dollar, although not as far as commodity prices. We appear to still be a safe haven, though (ahem) the budget is in a right mess.

* 'Available data since the previous Statement suggest that the domestic economy continued to grow at a below-trend pace over the second half of 2014. Resource exports and dwelling investment have grown strongly. Consumption growth remains a bit below average. Growth of private non-mining business investment and public demand remain subdued, while mining investment has fallen further'.

* 'Housing price inflation has eased from the very rapid rates seen in late 2013, although it remains relatively high, particularly in Sydney and Melbourne'.

* Household consumption growth has picked up since early 2013, but is still below average, despite support from 'very low interest rates'.

* Various positive factors, increased wealth, etc, etc have been partially offset by 'weak growth in labour income, reflecting subdued conditions in the labour market'.

There we have it, dear readers. There is a lot of global uncertainty, with local political uncertainty to compound this,  but Henry must admit no strong case for the rate cut we received a week ago today.  This was well advertised in advance by a 'well connected' journo or two, and Henry reflects on how much things have changed since a few serior staff were authorised to take calls from the press when Bob Johnston took the reins. 

[As an aside, it is worth noting that properly trained economists believe that inside information makes a desirable contribution to creating a properly informed market. Why it is against the law is therefore one of those sweet mysteries of life, and presumably the current restrictive law will be changed as part of Josh Frydenberg's ongoing efforts to deregulate Australia's overregulated economy.]

But readers will be far more interested in why, with a weak rate cut case, and little warning, except via the trusties of the press, the deed was done.

There are three theories scudding about.

First, the economic outlook is worse than most people believe.  As I said in my pre-board briefing: 'Unless the RBA has joined the 'serious trouble' camp, its own stated position does not call for further rate cuts'.  But the degree of overt concern in the typically excellent RBA commentary summarised above does not support that theory.

Second, the fear might be, absent a rate cut (or two, or three), Australia will be a loser in the currency wars, the welcome fall in the Aussie dollar will stall and there will be no further improvement in competitiveness to pull the economy out of its current glide path. Again, while there are hints in this direction, it could be said that the near zero rate nations are in far worse shape that Australia, whose Treasurer keeps telling us the nation is in extremely good shape, and that the rate cuts will greatly improve the situation.

Third, in the absence of action to fix the budget, and improve efficiency and competitiveness, the RBA must do its bit to help. This might be seen as insurance in case an unhappy Treasurer begins to talk openly about removing Treasurer Costello's reform that made the RBA so much more effective, giving it a clear focus on 'goods and services inflation' and the power to act independantly in pursuit of that objective.

And it may be inflation - asset inflation rather than goods and services inflation - that is the main result of this rate cut and others anticipated by 'well connected' members of the press.

Perhaps we shall never know, except in the unlikely case Glenn Stevens uses his well-deserved retirement to write a blisteringly honest biography.  Perhaps the truth is there was a bit of all three arguments at play, and also Barnaby's full moon.

But the good news is the rate cut comes at a good time to illustrate Henry's editor's latest post-modern painting.

Read the full RBA statement here.

The first painting in the style of this is available here.

Sunday Sanity Break, 8 February 2015
Date: Sunday, February 08, 2015
Author: Henry Thornton

'This dog will not run
'This boat will not float'
Ross Cameron, former Liberal backbencher, ahead of Party spill, now scheduled for 9 AM Monday.

'Tony has had absolute support from his senior colleagues. I will support him in any leadership spill'. Malcolm Turnbull, today.

As with the equivalent affirmation from Julie Bishop, 'this promise will not hold if a spill motion is passed'. The mob, to a man ... correction, person.

'Replace Joe Hockey as Treasurer by Malcolm Turnbull', Uncle Tom Cobley and many others in the past few days.  After all, it is the failed budget that is a main substantive weakness of Tony Abbott's performance in government.

'If Joe Hockey would agree to leave economic policy to Messrs Fraser and Stevens, at least until the current mess is sorted, I would vote for him to be given a second chance.  This is not a totally silly idea, dear readers. When a country gets so deep in the economic mire that it needs help from the International Monetary Fund, the tecnocrats get to call the shots.

'Far better to let our technocrats sort out the economy while there is still time to do so without advice from arrogant foreigners.  We've tried arrogant.  Let's have some genuine competence'. Henry Thornton, Friday 6 February.

So there you have it, dear readers. More political instability, following economic policy stasis amid assertion and counter assertion about which government is more responsible for the current mess. Greg Sheridan said among a blizzard of blame and analysis in the weekend press: ''... any government is now under constant attack from many of its own natural supporters, for not going far enough in the direction that alienates the majority of voters. There is a tremendous pincer movement of the extremes of your own base, louder than ever on social media, and the disgruntled in the centre and on the other side, louder than ever in their contradictory complaints'.

Paul Kelly, also yesterday, weighed in as follows. 'Rarely has the prime ministership seemed such a poisoned chalice. What is needed now, above all, is strong government. Yet resolute government is being put into grave jeopardy probably regardless of whether Abbott or Turnbull prevails.

'Two competing mantras echo across the partyroom. From Abbott: don’t surrender to chaos, weakness and Labor’s disease. And from the motley bunch of Turnbull travellers: seize this chance to save the government and invest it with new hope'.

More here, including a video.


This being a doldrum amongst the usual tempest of sporting news and views, the focus is on 'Leadership'. Leadership of Australia's world cup of cricket. Will Clarkie's hammy hold up? And if it does not, what about George Baily's form? And would Smithy lead the team if the hammy breaks again and George's form remains bad?

But there's more, dear readers. What about Watto's whatever? Is Johnno back to his scary best? Will Faulkner come up ok? If all the questions are answered in the affirmitive, Australia cannot lose.

In footy, the single biggest question is will Essendon be allowed to compete with all its players in 2015? Also: 'Will James Hird be leading them as coach? and 'Will Caaarlton! beat Essendon, even if the Dons are playing a hastily arranged team from Ascot Vale?

Great to see Timmy Cahill getting a fair suck of the sausage from the Shanghai dragons, and is also available to play for the Socceroos should the coach require him to do so. Go for it Ange.

Image of the week

Courtesy AFR

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